Nephrology is a science that deals with renal replacement therapies such as normal kidney function, treatment of kidney-related problems and dialysis or kidney transplantation. Neurological diseases such as diabetes and rheumatic diseases, which can affect the kidneys, and hypertension and kidney diseases are among the areas of the nephrology.
Nephrology's Areas of Interest
Nephrology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases, including hypertension and electrolyte disorders, and renal replacement therapies such as dialysis and kidney transplantation. The patients are sent to the nephrologist due to the impacts of systemic diseases such as acute kidney injury (insufficiency), chronic kidney disease (insufficiency), blood coming from urine, protein leakage from urine, painful urination, body swelling (edema), kidney stones, hypertension, renal involvement of diabetes (diabetic nephropathy), rheumatic diseases and kidney infections, nephritis, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, cystic kidney problems, acid-base balance disorders and fluid-electrolyte disorders. The procedures performed by the nephrologists include renal biopsy, hemodialysis catheter placement, peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, hemodialysis fistula management, monitoring and management of peritoneum and hemodialysis patients, preparation of candidate for kidney transplantation, follow-up and management of the patient after transplantation.
There are many types of cancer originating from the kidneys. The most common type of cancer in the adults is "kidney cell cancer". This type of cancer originates from the tissues of the kidney that filter the blood and create the urine. However, it should be noted that there may be no symptoms in early-stage renal cancers. For this reason, the symptoms mentioned above should not be waited to apply to the physician. The success of treatment of kidney cancers in early period and the life expectancy after treatment is much more pleasant.
Kidney cancer is five times more common in smokers.
What are the Symptoms of Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancers often do not cause any symptoms or complaints in early stages.
Some symptoms may occur with the growth of kidney cancer. These may be seen as presence of blood in the urine, visible bleeding or only in the form of microscopic bleeding that can be detected in urine analysis. In the examination of the kidney, palpable mass, loss of appetite, weight loss, recurrent fever, sustained side pain, general weakness and self-feeling, blood pressure elevation, blood values lower than normal can also be seen in kidney cancer (anemia) cases.
These symptoms can also be observed in diseases other than kidney cancer. Therefore, it is very important for people with such complaints to consult with a urology specialist as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Is it Possible to Early Diagnose Kidney Cancer?
It can develop insidiously in the early period without showing any symptoms. For this reason, do not neglect to undergo regular medical checks.
Your physician asks questions about the general health status and makes physical examinations. Then blood and urine samples are taken to assess the general health. Various radiological examinations may also be made for evaluation of the kidneys and surrounding organs. Among them, there are ultrasonography, IVP (intravenous pyelography), computed tomography and MRI. After diagnosis of the kidney cancer, your physician may request additional investigations to understand the extent of disease.
How is the Kidney Cancer Treated?
In kidney cancers, the first step is the complete removal of the existing cancerous tissue by surgical methods. However, it should be kept in mind that the degree and stage of cancer is of great importance in order to ensure complete treatment by surgical method. Kidney cancers, which can be early detected, have a high chance of complete treatment with surgery.