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Gastroenterology is a field of science which examines diagnosis and treatments of gastrointestinal tract, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and breech diseases, liver diseases, gallbladder and channel diseases, pancreas diseases and abdominal wall diseases, in other words all organs in the abdominal except the kidneys organs.

The areas of the gastroenterologists are quite broad and are divided into two main groups. The first one includes diseases in the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus), stomach, small intestines, large intestines (colon) and breech (anus). The second one includes liver and biliary tract (hepatobiliary system) diseases.

Gastrointestinal Channel Diseases

The gastroenterologists diagnose and treat reflux disease, especially the esophagus cancer and the other diseases such as polyps, diverticula, all kinds of foreign matters getting in the esophagus and injuries caused by drinking harmful substances such as bleach, oil solvent and all kinds of bleeding and foreign matter induced diseases in the esophagus.

Stomach Diseases

The most common stomach disease is the gastritis and this field includes diagnosis and treatment of benign ulcers or malignant stomach cancers, gastric polyps and all kinds of stomach bleeding (Helicobacter pylori and mainly rheumatic drugs). In other words, it includes removal of penetrating and stinging foreign matters getting into the stomach.

Small Bowel Diseases

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is attached to the stomach by a ring called a pyloric ring.  The diagnosis and treatment of bleeding due to duodenal ulcers and ulcers, stenosis caused by poor ulcer healing and anemia called celiac disease, growth retardation in children, diarrhea and weight loss are included in the field of gastroenterologists.

In addition, the papilla root that is the point where the gladder synthesized in the liver flows into the duodena is in this area and papilla carotid stenosis, cancers, biliary stones, biliary cancers as well as pancreatic diseases and cancers of adjacent organs and treatments of patients who have lost their chance of surgery are also treated by the gastroenterology experts. Gastroenterology covers diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, and small intestine, esophagus, stomach and colon diseases.

Colon Diseases

The treatments of spastic colon, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticula, removal of polyps, intervention to colon bleedings and diagnosis of colon cancers are successfully performed by the gastroenterologists (except those who need surgery).

Diseases in the Anal Area 

Diagnosis of hemorrhoids, hemorrhoids-related bleeding, anal fissure, anal fistula and rectum cancers and treatment of these diseases are within this field.  

Liver and Gallbladder Diseases

Liver diseases have an important place in the field of gastroenterologists.  As the causes of acute or chronic hepatitis, diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, cirrhosis of the liver, diseases of the fluid collected in the abdomen, renal failure caused by cirrhosis, liver cancers after cirrhosis and liver coma including Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, chronic hepatitis, alcohol and drugs should be done by gastroenterology experts.

Other important areas of the gastroenterology specialists are treatments such as removal of bile duct stones, diagnosis of gallbladder and biliary stones and cancers, as well as stent placement by applying ERCP.

Pancreatic Diseases

Gastroenterology specialists perform important tasks in cases of pancreatic diseases such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cysts and cancers, and stent placement and evacuation of cysts.

Diagnosis and Treatment Methods

Today, diagnosis methods such as advanced biochemical tests and radiological tests (such as various films, ultrasonography, tomography and MRI) are used.  The patient is diagnosed by applying endoscopy (gastroscopy) for esophageal, gastric and duodenum diseases after talking to him/her.  In the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract stones and cancers, diagnosis is made with a special endoscopy device which is called side-view duodenoscopy, and then the patient is treated. Diagnosis of colon and breech diseases, diverticulum, and diagnosis and removal of polyps, cancer and interventions in bleeding are made with an endoscopy device called colonoscopy.

These procedures can be done by administering anesthesia to the throat locally, by examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum as well as gastroscopy, ERCP and colonoscopy by applying general anesthesia to the patient. In addition, a special device called endoscopic ultrasonography, in which endoscopy and ultrasonography are combined, is used to diagnose and treat.